tv Abraham Lincoln and the Gettysburg Address CSPAN September 3, 2017 10:05am-11:11am EDT
president abraham lincoln delivered what has since become one of the most noted speeches in american history, the gettysburg address. next, miami university professor martin johnson talks about lincoln's planning for, and writing of the speech, which was given at the dedication of a national cemetery for soldiers killed in the battle. his hour-long talk was part of a conference hosted by the gettysburg college civil war
institute. >> our first speaker this afternoon, to kick off our conference, is martin johnson. he is an associate professor of history at the university of miami, in ohio, where he teaches courses on abraham lincoln, the civil war, and modern europe. he earned his phd in 1993 from brown university. he has devoted much of his career to discussing the 16th resident of the united states. he is also the author of a number of books. his first two books were on european history. one is on the paris commune. and the other is on the dreyfus affair. and unlike most of us, he can only write between 1861-1865, martin is able to go into other fields and be successful in doing so. martin earned the distinguished lincoln prize. he received that prize for writing the gettysburg address. writing the gettysburg address is a superb book. it takes readers on lincoln's journey to gettysburg. i don't want to get going too much of martin's talk, but i will simply say this, that it reveals how lincoln's intellectual process kept going, how he was revising, rethinking, while coming to gettysburg and even after he arrived here!
it is a piece of detective work, this book, and two years ago, in february, the dead of winter, it was snowing, and he gave an amazing talk. i didn't want to inflate the expectations so much, but as soon as i heard it, i knew that he needed to come here, and to talk about this important research and findings to the audience. so let us all give a warm welcome to martin johnson. [applause] johnson: thank you. thank you very much. what a pleasure to be here. i appreciate the large audience. we are here tonight to talk about the gettysburg address, and a lincoln and gettysburg moment. i started on studying the gettysburg address while thinking that we have these moments in our american history which we celebrate, moments
which make us in many ways, who we are. but sometimes you wonder whether they are mythic, whether they are elements that are added, especially the gettysburg address of lincoln. giving it on the train, a sudden inspiration, or was it the long work of long-run of labor? thedid he really write gettysburg address? it is an important story because , part of this journey that we have as americans, how we tell the story of who we are, makes us who we are. we are the stories that we tell ourselves. and as we live those stories, we live up to those stories we make america, and we can make , a better america. one way we can see that is when we look at things like the plight of lincoln in this temple, i like the words, "in
this temple, and in the hearts of the people for whom he saved the union, the memory of abraham lincoln is enshrined forever." as long as we have stories of lincoln, and stories of the civil war, and the valiant courage of the soldiers in the civil war, we can't become the best we can become the americans that we aspire to be -- we can theam -- we can become americans that we aspire to be. and the story of lincoln's gettysburg address helps us make that journey. he got on the train the day before, it was november 18. and these slides have little to do with lincoln exactly, except the slide here is the old old terminal in washington. the old-time train. it took him many hours to get to gettysburg, rattling down the tracks. and of course, the stories on the train, of lincoln writing the speech. he stopped along the way, to pick up the water.
the train evidently, the engines had to rest. for instance, hanover junction, just up the road here, it is a wonderful place to visit, by the way, the railroad junction was an important place. lincoln went through there several times. and they have restored the old depot, too. and you will see images of hanover junction, sometimes associated with lincoln, and they will say lincoln is here on the platform. lincoln is probably not in these pictures. these pictures were probably taken the day before lincoln was there, when a whole group of people, marshals for the parade and gets her money in gettysburg were going up to gettysburg and , they were stranded there for hours and hours, and had nothing to do but take a lot of pictures. there is a tall man in a top hat in many of these photos, but most likely it is not abraham lincoln. but lincoln went over to hanover junction, and rattled down the rails farther to get to gettysburg.
and we know he did write on the debt she did not write on the train,, because he tells us that. he told his attorney general of mysteries of him being on the train and being a gettysburg. i would like to organize my talk a little bit around that journey that lincoln took, and the story that his attorney general told. he came to washington after the gettysburg ceremony. about a year later, in fact. he was not at the ceremony, he did not see anything. so, what he tells us is what lincoln told him. listening to james speed, we are listening to abraham lincoln talking about his journey to the gettysburg address. and about a year after the ceremony, in casual conversation with lincoln, he said he was his uncertain as to whether duties would detain him in washington, but he was anxious
to go, importantly, anxious to go and deservedly be prepared in the face of such an important thing. a letter of invitation from david wills gave him expectations for a short speech and a speech that had to be appropriate for the occasion. one of the most impressive ceremonies of the mid-19th century, a gathering on a battlefield like this had never taken place. and lincoln, of course, rarely left washington. he never left washington to give a speech, for example. this was a major event, and he did want to say some appropriate things because the organizers had asked him to. but he knew that this was an important event. he knew also that he wasn't going to be the main speaker so it had to be short, and it had to be appropriate. here is the link and white -- the lincoln white house at the time of the civil war. you imagine lincoln busy here in the white house, he is not sure he can go to gettysburg. in fact, he only decided to go at the last moment possible,
most likely. probably the very weekend before going to gettysburg is when he decided to go. because the monday before the ceremony that is when the , newspapers sent out word that lincoln had finally decided to go to gettysburg. in fact it wasn't until the next day, that they had the railroad schedule set. so it was really a last-minute decision that lincoln made, that he actually could go. he wanted to go, but he wasn't sure he could go. and as he told speed, the day before he left, he found time to write about half the speech. and here we have images of lincoln in what was his office, today's at the lincoln bedroom. he is at the table where the emancipation proclamation was signed earlier that year, on new year's day of that year. and i love the picture of him
standing up, in particular, because it is as close to a candid shot as you can get with lincoln. he is standing there. near the desk, and you do not see it reproduced a lot because his face is obscured, and some people sometimes have tried to retouch his face, and it did not turn out well. you can see the pigeonholed as behind himled desk there, where he kept his papers. he said let me find the letter, and he would rummage through his desk in the pigeonholes, but he had this amazing filing system. he would always be able to find it somehow. it is probably at this desk, that the night before leaving for gettysburg, and the day before he left, he found time to write about half the speech. probably at that table, probably in what today is called the lincoln bedroom. very appropriate, because the lincoln bedroom now has the honor of housing one of the five handwritten copies that lincoln wrote. there are only five have written copies of lincoln gettysburg address. the last one is in the lincoln
bedroom. the most important one to most people. so, he wrote it there and now it is enshrined there. well, what does it mean to write about half the speech? i think this is the half of the speech he was talking about. the half of the speech which today is the first page, called the nickel a copy of the gettysburg address. it is all in ink, on executive letterhead, written in bold hand with no hesitation whatsoever. this is a draft that is a result of thought, a final version in many ways, or what was intended to be final. i collect the washington draft, because this is the only fragment that we have remaining of the speech as he wrote it, in washington before coming to gettysburg. the washington draft. the first page of what is often called it the nickel a copy.
all in ink. and you can see the last phrase, it is for us the living to stand here. you have never heard those words, "to stand here" in the gettysburg address which you memorized, because in fact, lincoln memorizes the speech. we know that because of what he told james speed about the rest of his journey. he came to gettysburg, arrived at the station which hope you all have seen, dutifully remodeled and now part of the national work service. he was whisked away from the station. he was greeted the station by edward everett who was going to be the main speaker the next day. and enormous crowd was crowding around the station waiting for lincoln to come in around 6 p.m. that evening, november, dark and them when was already out, a little bit rainy and windy.
got outverett had not that day, wanting to preserve his voice. so they wished him away from the gettysburg tatian to the home of his host in gettysburg. david wells, who i do not have to tell you a lot about. david wills was a very important man, a young lawyer at the time. probably a little bit younger, around 33 years old at the time. houseed in the brandeis on the main square as you know, and he had been for months and months, organizing the treatment of the wounded, the dying, to care for the battlefield soldiers, and he had been commissioned by the governor of -- tovania, andrew take care of the battlefield
dead. he was the person who was the behind the ceremony that lincoln was going to attend. was amongavid wills those who at that time thought that lincoln was not going to raise the level of discourse to read it was not known that lincoln was a great eloquent speaker in 1863 or so, he had not yet given his second inaugural. he was still very much viewed as a western politician by many people and it is possible that willswilla quat -- david questioned that he could in fact rise to the occasion. notables from the town came to meet lincoln a man who had been , wounded, shook lincoln's hand and said it was a proudest moment of his life. in the evening, around 9:00 or
so, the arrived in the front of bandouse and there was a for the ninth new york infantry. a grand third and it was going to be had, it was a 19th-century political ritual in which a band comes to a house in a visiting town, they play music and demand that the notable come out and say a few words, they march around a little bit and then the notable goes back inside and they clap. lincoln made him stand outside -- made them stand outside for 45 minutes or so, until they were howling for him to come out. but that is important to know about the story of the gettysburg address. it was after coming out to talk to the serenade, after a brief word or two that he came back inside, went upstairs and started writing what we think of today as the gettysburg address. here is the man who made that possible. i showed you this picture earlier, it turns out that when you magnify, i had not realized
this until i got to the large version -- that is actually david wills in his carriage. i think this enterprise probably taken about 1892, just after david wills had written his account of how lincoln had written the gettysburg address. david wills, you can see in the photograph, it is not of his family but of a 19th-century hoosier family, this is just a picture of the house, because david wills wanted to know that that is the house that lincoln wrote the gettysburg address in. he had just written his story about how that happened, and he had signed it like an affidavit. wills at this time was a judge, he wanted to make sure that you knew that this was where lincoln wrote the gettysburg address. does anybody happen to know all the individuals in the photos? i would very happy to know. later, thank you. so, he went upstairs and here is what james speed told us. after the serenade, he took what he had written with him to
gettysburg, and he was put in an upper room. he asked to be left alone for a time. now, that upper room is interesting, because remember, speed only knows what lincoln told him. he told the story as you can see, in 1879, 16 years or so after the event. 15 years after lincoln told him, and he still remembered the upper room. that upper room is in no other source, as far as i can tell. if james speed knows lincoln went to an upper room, it is because lincoln told him he went to an upper room. and that is how we know, in many other ways, then this is a very reliable account. lincoln is talking to us, in many ways through james speed. he is in the upper room of the house after asking to be left alone for time, and you can imagine, serenade her's out -- serenade her's upfront -- serenaders outfront. a dozen governors were expected
in town that night. he then prepared speech, but did not have time to memorize it. in this photo, the same bed is there. you can visit the house today, i am not sure if it is still set up the same way. this appears to be the bad that lincoln actually did we been. and there is a small table here, and some of the sources, in fact, mention a small table where lincoln wrote the gettysburg address. i don't know if that table is still there today, but a table very much like that is where lincoln might have written the gettysburg address. or revised it, at least. after revising for a time, he called his host and said i want to go talk to william seward, my secretary of state. how do i get to him? so, you have this amazing story of david wills, the host, the governor of pennsylvania has arrived by that time, andrew curtin, and several guards, hustling lincoln out to the
street to go to the house where william seward was staying. lincoln however, was worried because he knew there was a huge crowd out there and he did not want to talk again. he did not like talking extemporaneously as president, because he was afraid of making a mistake or something. and he told the governor of pennsylvania, you go out and keep the people from me, and i will go out and visit to her -- i will go and see seward. so the governor of pennsylvania goes out and gives one of those speeches, and then lincoln meanwhile going next door to see william seward. william seward is staying at the house of a local family, a newspaper owner. and lincoln wanted to talk to him about his speech. it is probable, in fact, it is very likely i think that seward , did help lincoln with his speech. most likely, the last few words of the speech, the poetry, you might say, which lincoln thought seward was very good at.
of course, we all know that seward help lincoln with a few lines in the first inaugural. "the mystic courts of memory" that idea came from sword. lincoln changed it and made it many people of course, think it was better than seward's original. but seward did help lincoln with the first inaugural parade and is probably the same with the gettysburg address. douglas rosen, a very fine scholar also suggests that this is the case. one other reason i think that is the case is because seward liked "parish", he liked using it in a speech. not use the word very often, it was not a favorite word of his. perish." h --
lincoln did not use the word perish, that day. but the word, perish, is, to me, seward through and through. so, it lincoln reads the speech to seward, and after half an hour or so, he talked to some of the people at the house were seward was saying. then, his bodyguards have to take them through the crowd, once again, back to the wills house. he returned to the will house, and he does not have time to memorize it, that night after the serenade, after talking to seward, he then finished his revisions and wrote out what he thought was going to be the gettysburg address, the next day. the speech that lincoln wrote that night, at gettysburg is an indian -- an intermediate draft red that is not the gettysburg address, either. the speech he brought her best brought from washington was not the gettysburg address that you have learned to memorize,
the speech he wrote that night in gettysburg although lincoln , undoubtedly thought when he went to bed that night that it was going to be the speech gave the next day, in fact that was not the speech he gave. because, the journey is continuing. it starts in washington, he writes on the train, he revises in gettysburg, and it continues. because the next morning, before going to the battlefield he and seward evidently the night , before, had cooked up a trip to the battlefield. in part we know that because any super of the time, of the next day after the ceremony, quoted seward as saying " i visited ground run the cemetery this morning and mr. lincoln joined me." seward and lincoln traveled up to seminary ridge, and visited key sites that were known, even at the time. i have here an image from a photographic history of gettysburg.
this image comes from that. they visited the ground around the seminary for very specific reasons. already, only four months after the battle, already there was a kind of pilgrimage route taking shape. gettysburg was entering the historical memory of the union, and then later, of the united states. the reborn united states after the civil war. and this pilgrimage route often started at seminary ridge. it was recognized to be a key point on the battlefield, with stories from various officers looking out over the battlefield. there were stories in various newspapers of heaps of human limbs out the windows of the seminary of course, which was -- aas a hospital, i center of amputation. lincoln knew these headquarters were nearby.
he certainly knew of john burns, but he may have noted that john burns had fought in that region, the so-called hero of gettysburg. he had already been famous. what other denizen of gettysburg made the cover of "harpers weekly?" during the civil war? i don't think there are many. john burns grabbed his musket to defend his home and farm, somewhat of an irascible character in town lore. to defend his home and farm. he has a statue, and he has a poem and he has fame. lincoln certainly knew about another event upon the ridge, the death of john reynolds. john reynolds, lincoln had called to the white house before the battle, and offered command of the army of the potomac to john reynolds before the battle.
reynolds knew he was a battlefield general, and he did not like the political aspect of commanding the entire army of the potomac. so he declined and meade, of course, was given command. reynolds was out in front and in control of the battlefield, and under his corps command. on the first day of battle, he was in front of his soldiers perhaps 50 yards in front of confederate soldiers, when he was shot in the ground around the cemetery, in what is today called reynolds woods. and that event was famous. instantly. he was on the cover of "harpers weekly." his death was immortalized in a series of drawings and etchings. lincoln called him my friend, john reynolds.
and he knew of his death and he telegraphed immediately after news of john reynolds' death , arrived in washington, asking about what happened. and he received word that the body had been carried back, first to lancaster, a large procession and then internment. so, lincoln knew of john reynolds. he knew what had taken place in these woods, maybe he knew it was the woods around the cemetery. certainly, that is where lincoln and seward went when they knew that they were visiting the battlefield. lincoln could also see these in these images, these famous images, which were hanging in the photographic studio that alexander gardner had in washington when lincoln visited the studio. they were in his catalog that had just appeared in september. the dedication ceremony was in
november. just appeared in the catalog that gardner issued. these were notable pictures. people were very interested in such images. these were among the first to show the battlefield dead and this inspired tremendous interest. lincoln visited the gallery, he saw those images, undoubtedly. because they were on the wall, when he was there. and this is of course one of the , photos taken of lincoln, the so-called gettysburg portrayed, as it is sometimes called. he does when you think of lincoln, this is one of the images we have in mind. this lincoln is the lincoln that john hay, his secretary called jupiter,wards commanding armies, making strong generals frail and enforcing his will on senators and representatives alike." so it is after visiting the
battlefield lincoln returns to , the wills home, up to the upper level room, the morning of the speech. and instead of simply looking over the words he had written the night before, he engages in what i think is a crash revision of the gettysburg address. a crash revision that shows that he was finding a new understanding of the war, coming to words that he will find -- that we will find inspiring and etch in stone. this is a document that he created in the upper level room bear in gettysburg. the first half is the part that came from washington, the so-called washington draft. the second page is different paper, is in pencil, not ink, and it shows, again, but there is no revisions on the second page, either. the only revision to this
document, here, instead of "it is for us", is written instead, "it is rather for us the living, we hear dedicate," and then he goes on to the next page. it is un-grammatical. -- you haveedicated not heard that in the gettysburg address either, this was a crash revision. but he wrote it after seeing the same ground where john reynolds died, the ground where the union and confederacy fought over. as he walked the same ground that the armies of the potomac had fought over.
he underlined in pencil, what they did here. that and this change here, where the only edits to the document, and the first page. i think lincoln was underlining the word did, when he was thinking about how my going to give this speech. what am i going to say? how my going to emphasize things? and he underlined this, because the power of "what they did here" was coming to him more strongly than it could in washington mayor or in the office that he was using. -- that he could in washington, or in the office that he was using. when he was in washington, it was in his imagination, in his mind's eye that he saw gettysburg. walking on the battlefield was a different experience. why did he make this transition, between two very different pages? there is one element i think, in the second page, that is new, novel, and astonishing.
and that is, the second page that contains the phrase, "a new birth of freedom." and i think it is that phrase, that lincoln knew he was aiming for when he was revising the first page. he had written the second page, and then he had to make this work. here into "to stand "we hear be dedicated." "dedicated" is an emotion and "s" is a stance. to be dedicated is an emotional commitment. and i think that was the emotional commitment that lincoln was feeling. where does the "new birth of freedom" come from? how did he draw up that phrase? it came from his thinking about what the
war meant and was. because at the very time he went to gettysburg, lincoln was thinking about and writing, what we call his state of the union speech for when he got back it washington. at that point it was called the annual message. but essentially state of union. this is the first time that lincoln issues a general reconstruction policy. widely anticipated. lincoln had been thinking about it for a long time. and the gettysburg address and this reconstruction policy in the december message of 1863 were written at exactly the same , moment. they illuminate each other. so in the december message which we date to december 8 was actually written the same time as the gettysburg address or bracketing the same weekend. in the december message, lincoln tells us some of the things he's
thinking about when he is thinking about the new birth of freedom. for example in the december message he talks about the problems that emancipation caused originally. he knew there was problem with emancipation. the dark days would come because political opposition. we know, too, that the elections that occurred after the emancipation proclamation was announced, those elections were a tremendous blow to the republican party. lincoln and those around him believe that if the same political movement and continued in 1863 as a notification of the war of 1862, the war cannot not be sustained if they had similar electoral losses in 1863 as in 1862. the i mansemancipation -- so the emancipation proclamation, he knew it would cause political upheaval and difficulty. even with the emancipation proclamation, we all understand,
it was a limited measure, military measure, even a union reconstructed under the emancipation proclamation would have incorporated slavery in the slave union states. so it was not a thorough solution, not a reconstruction program it was a military , measure to get soldiers on the field and to make sure that britain and france didn't intervene. and to make this war a war about freedom. in addition, lincoln's message of 1863 said that the trial of african-american soldiers have proven their worth, as good as soldiers as any, he said. that's an important phrasing for lincoln "as good as any." that's basically saying putting the metric is one of equality or inequality. and he's saying as good as soldiers as any. on the battlefield, proven to people
like lincoln and others who had originally questioned whether african-american troops would be an asset to union forces. he knew the politically it would cause difficulty. and around the time, lincoln is beginning to think about and people are talking about what will become the 13th amendment, anti-slavery amendment. he has not spoken publicly about it at this point. but there are indications that in november, december and certainly in january, just after gettysburg lincoln is speaking , ways which suggest that he is favorable to it. however he is moving slowly and , cautiously. this is one of those examples where lincoln is being prudent, not getting out in front of certain issues because in this case, there's a sense that maybe if he was too much for it that some democrats , who were also for it that time might turn against it. he was , worried about partisan politics involved in the 13th
amendment. so these are the things lincoln was thinking about. emancipation, abolition of slavery, african-american soldiers. when he said in 1863 at the time of gettysburg the crisis which threatened to divide the friends of the union has passed. gettysburg has been won. vicksburg has won. armies are victorious and on the offensive. thus we have as he wrote in the message of 1863, the new reckoning. does that sound familiar? "the new reckoning." it is at gettysburg where he puts these together in a more poetic way as the new birth of of freedom. the key provision, key political change of the key -- or the key policy change, in the december message of 1863 as that lincoln would not accept slavery and the union. any slave states have to apolish
-- had it to abolish slavery as a part of their constitution to come back to the union. where the emancipation proclamation freed slaves, the new policy was to end slavery area and we sometimes do not understand the transition that had to occur from 1862-1863. 1854, it is all over, right? slavery was done with red in fact, people thought that the union would be reconstructed slavery way into 1864. the elections of 1864 solved that question, but lincoln is saying here, a new reckoning, a new birth of freedom, a union without slavery. thethe union as it was, union of four score and seven years ago, it was the union of a new birth of freedom. .
as we know, first time he comes with that phrase, is the morning of the speech at gettysburg. in the upper room. after visiting the battlefield. when he wroits -- when he writes in pencil, "the nation shall have a new birth of freedom and the government of the people, either shall notr the people perish from the earth." you see the new birth of freedom associated with this eternal vision of an american union which is now cleansed of its greatest stain. this new birth of freedom then tucks the document in his top pocket, folds it in thirds, you can see the full marks on the document itself. puts it in his coat pocket. goes out to the central square here at gettysburg. we have all walked around it today and yesterday and in days ahead. you have to imagine horses, groups,
civic organizations, odd fellows wearing their outlandish attire. it was bedlam out there on the square. it was about a mile south of town, down this road. trip,ncoln, on this smiles. somebodyeting people, less a child up to him and he gives a kiss and hence her down to the father. on the trip, lincoln starts out in a joyful mood. people were laughing, it felt like a celebration. but as he gets down towards the cemetery, where their graves can be seen on the hillside a new , tone begins to be felt. here we're south looking up north towards the center of town. you can see these are are the bayonets of the guarding troops which have come down, and if you
turn right here, then go sort of around to the cemetery, another image is this -- three images. this third image is one however, that when you focus in as pointed out by another author, when you focus in, you can see it, a man on a horse and top hat and he does not have a sash. lincoln was not wearing a sash. most of it, marshals the others were wearing sashes. we would see an example coming up of a tall man in a top hat on a horse wearing a sash. not lincoln. this is undoubtedly lincoln and the photographer set up his station exactly to catch this scene. he knew as he turned this way, people in front of lincoln would be momentarily out of way and
lincoln would come into view and that's when he snapped this shot. this is not, as far as i know, as recognized as one of the official photographs of lincoln. possibly there is maybe some doubt. in fact i think it should be added to that list. well, i maybe don't have to show this to many of you here, of course lincoln was coming down this way. this is an aerial view. the turn that he made is here. came around this way to the cemetery. they did not go through evergreen cemetery, they made sure to avoid it because he was not happy with the leader of the evergreen cemetery. so they went this way and probably up the center of what we think of now as thecenter of -- the center of the cemetery. maybe they came up this way here, but there is a little sunken road. this picture is
taken from one of the houses over here, probably from the second-floor window. area,in the local hanover their historical society collection. a relatively little known photo. and i'm showing it here. and we're looking up the hill perhaps i don't know if you see , perhaps, probably see a flag here. large flagpole. and just on the other side of the hill from here. the parade came up this way and probably up one of these spokes here. as they got to the top of the hill, this is what greeted them. we're approaching the cemetery grounds that flagpole that is here is now on our left. the evergreen cemetery house straight ahead. there it is. we have come up the hill to this point approximately here. now we
look straight upon this is one of the alexander gardner photos. straight on through the arch of the evergreen gate house. he set it up for that purpose. it is absolutely clear that's why this camera is here at this point. and it is raking almost across the front of the speaker stand. probably the speaker stand is pointed a little bit towards this direction over here, not just down towards the flag. it is here's the speaker stand. behind the speaker stand is a tent that edward everett asked for. he was 72 years old. he knew it would be hours and hours out there and he wanted to mike that she wanted to make sure that he had the accommodations necessary, he asked for a tent, a chamber pot. he was given the run of the tent just beforehand. there was a group of people in there with him and he had a hard time shushing them out to he could take care of business. there is edward's tent behind the speaker
stand. in this picture many people , believed they could find lincoln in various ways. personally, i do not think so. so again we look from above. we go to the other side of the field. we came up this way and now we do the other side towards the gate house which is over here. the current gatehouse. this is a magnificent vista. this is 1863. beautiful, as far as i can tell, virtually everything in here is accurate except perhaps this tree which has a lot of leaves on it which of course did not happen in november. but there were stories of people selling lemonade and souvenirs and things like this along baltimore pike. but the parade had come up the other side and this way perhaps. there's the front of the speaker stand. they walked in front of the stand and filled in this area here which soldiers had kept open. this box created by soldiers to
keep that area reserved for the parade to come in. so let's, and here we have another image. same image photographically basically from almost the same place , except on this photograph you're probably in one of the upper windows of this building here looking out on to the field. here is the flagpole right there right there, maybe you can't see it in that, the plagflagpole goes right there. the speak heer -- the speaker stand is over here. this is what you are are viewing from this angle. let's get closer into this area here. there's the flagpole. let's stand here with the flagpole on our right. right in here, closer, there we go. there's the flagpole. the speaker stand in front of us is very distinct. of course many of you know the , story. in 1954, national archives employee is looking at
this picture. and he says you know, everybody knows where the picture was taken from. some people thought antietam when it was dedicated under andrew johnson. , looked closer. blew it up a little bit and of course we know there on the speaker stand is none other than abraham lincoln sitting on the platform at gettysburg, about to give the gettysburg address. undoubtedly this is beforehand. i talked about -- i think i have another image but not very distinct -- there he is there. let me go back to the other one. here is lincoln. here is that man in the tall man on the horse with the sash i was talking about. somebody was telling me that he doesn't have a beard at this time. i'm concerned about that. but i thought it was ward lambon. and i will go with ward lambon until i have another photograph to pell me differently. as they sit on the
stand, they had to wait a few minutes until edward everett emerged from his tent to read there was difficulty there. emerged from his tent. he came forward. everybody stood up of course. main speaker of the day. edward everett was man who held -- was a man who held every major office that the nation could bestow accept president and vice president, ambassador to britain, secretary of state, senator and governor of massachusetts. he was on at the downside of his career at this point but he was still somewhat a controversial figure especially, have long -- especially among abolitionists and other anti-slavery figures. and attempts through the 1840s and 1850s and kept the union together by not emphasizing anti-slavery. he was one of those wigs that hoped that best one of those whigs who hoped the problem would take
care of itself if it was not talked about much. and of course as you know in the 1850s, that's not getting you very far in massachusetts. he retired from politics some what under a cloud. he then took to public speaking. he is one of the people who is very much important for creating a historical memory about washington's mount vernon for example. known as perhaps a little bit of the bygone era, , even in 1863, as one of the --at orders -- archers orators. associated with with webster and orders of 1840s and 1850s perhaps. but his speech is often compared to lincoln's, to of course not to the advantage of everett. but everett gave a speech that brought lincoln to tears. you have to imagine, they are sitting on the battlefield, seeing these kinds of sights. this is taken in november of 1863 on the battlefield of gettysburg where they are returning some the bodies.
, onereshly dug graves reporter described it like "flowerbeds freshly dug." the scene became somber and the gafs themselves set the tone for this being a sacred ceremony. and everett rose to the occasion. those accounts that we have that denigrating of everett or -- are accounts generally by newspaper editors back home reading the speech, if you were there during that hour and half or two hours, there is universal praise, virtual universal praise for his speech, everett's speech, because it did bring people to tears. lincoln then stepped forward to read and of course there is that moment, that some of the void which you know so much about what happened before, so much about what happened after rid where you
have to fill in in some ways, the iconography and images. these are some. but maybe this is what we should be thinking about when you think about lincoln standing on the platform. standing with no gestures. maybe the sweep of his right hand at this image here, this lincoln in one point. chicago and elsewhere, that perhaps is a very good impression, too. standing and speaking his words in a loud clear ringing voice. a voice that could be heard by hundreds and thousands in front of him. he knew how to speak in the open air. he still had two eastern ears. he still had that kentucky lilt and accent. he called it a cheer, for example. that voice is one that could be heard across the battlefield. when he stepped forward he then spoke and gave to the speech his new dedication, which he felt
that morning. he had imagined being there in washington. he had walked the battlefield and now he had heard everett's speech and heard the prayer. heard the hymns. seen the graves. he had stood on that platform for two hours. looking at the scene around it. the beautiful scenery, the beautiful fall day by the time ceremony took place, around 52 degrees probably. what he said had impressed everett so much that everett, who was the premiere critic of oratory at the time perhaps, said the next day, i should be glad, if i could flatter myself, i came as near to the central idea of the occasion two hours as you did in two minutes. that distinction, two hours, two minutes, speech that was forgotten, and a speech that was remembered, those kinds of comparisons have lasted to the present day and everett was
among the first to make them, the poor fellow, didn't work out to his benefit. but lincoln took to heart everett's words. and james speed remembered, this is the culmination in many ways of lincoln's experience, of lincoln's telling the story to james speed. lincoln told james speed about the story, and lincoln told me according to speed he never received a compliment he prized more highly. because lincoln had endowed that speech, not just the words, but with his feeling. he had been to the battlefield. and we can see that, when we try to understand what he said there. we have the words on the page. but what did he say? that we have to look to the newspapers and other sources. and here, the second half of this phrase here was added by lincoln on the battlefield, on the stand. he had already underlined this word here here. the world will little remember what we say
here, or what can never forget what they did here. that was the -- or can never forget what they did here. that was the most quoted phrase of the speech at the time and for years afterwards. that was the part of the speech, because they were commemorating real living dead, many of the thousands in front of lincoln were sons, brothers, wives, daughters, parents, of soldiers who had died or been injured at gettysburg. so this spoke to them. it spoke to lincoln too. and then he added, extemporaneously more or less, -- it is for us, the living, rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work they have so far nobly carried on. because of the second page also has two words that are new and original to this document. "devotion." they're not found in the first page. it is at gettysburg he adds those words to his speech. the speech that he brought from
washington had "dedicated" and it. the speech that he wrote that morning contained the word "dedicated." the revision that he made in gettysburg, he added a word "dedicated." and then when he spoke, he added another version of the word "dedicated." six times he put the word "dedicated." in a speech. even on the stand, stealing those emotions, feeling the power of that moment the word , came to him for a sixth time. and so it is in that phrase that occurs here, you see, from here to here, the spoken words, that join together the washington together, lincoln's words and n the washington version of lincoln's words and the gettysburg version. thinking about the founding, the revolutionary hero, the four score and seven years ago.
those are from the first page in washington. devotion,tion, the the emotional power is in the second page. phrase, the people at the time to not remark upon, a phrase that was not in his written draft, a phrase that he added while standing on the battlefield, while standing on the platform. a number of versions of the gettysburg address, this is the draft. these are other newspaper versions. newspaper versions basically all agree that he said that the nation under god and when he revised it, he removed the under god and here is where he moved it. that phrase, under god shows the power of that gettysburg moment.
the power of the speeches, the prayers, and this is why we have that phrase in our pledge of allegiance. it was added in the 1950's as part of our fight against communism,godless they called it at the time. one nation under god was added in 1954. much of the argument in favor was under the basis that lincoln spoke those words, which he undoubtedly did. this is how lincoln got to gettysburg. the journey he made starting with one text in washington, another in -- with a revision in gettysburg. those revisions made the gettysburg address that we have much and i thank you very for that. [applause]
>> i am told that it is time for questions, if there are any and to please use the microphone if you have any questions. don't leave me hanging up here. >> in your book, you said that lincoln was talking moderate but leaning radical. it would be argued that lincoln's thinking on slavery actually evolved over the course of his presidency. do you agree with that, or do you think that lincoln always intended to abolish slavery and was just looking for the right
moment? >> a good question. i don't think lincoln started the war thinking he would abolish slavery. i think his anti-slavery karen -- credentials are clear before the war. i think he took advantage of every opportunity and when he he believed it was controversial and he feared and i believe he was right, that taking antislavery measures might hurt the union and maintaining the union was the overall goal. comes, where the tension it has to be a union worth fighting for. the ideal has to be preserved. you cannot allow slavery to be extended. if he hadn't been anti-slavery, and compromise could have been reached easily before the war got going. the ideals are the most
important element, but impractical reality, they had to be preserved through the constitution and that requires political support. he did take advantage of his opportunities, but there was no planned in advance. >> where do you stand on the thatacy of the claim lincoln had come back from giving his speech, sat down and said that speech won't scowl? >> they won't scour story first emerges in the late 1870's, and it was much discussed at the time. james speeds recollection was prompted by -- they said lincoln did not feel that way. in the book, i argue that
lincoln often spoke with his words. he was not one to puff up his chief accomplishment. been -- mightave have heard them say he is not so great, but what he said to james speed about the complement that he gave him and there are other indications that i get him in the book that lincoln did understand that his speech was something that people talked about and recognized and not lincoln himself came to understand was something that had been more than just a speech. i do believe lincoln did see the emerging legend grow and he told that story to james speed to account for that. that david wills did not get along with elizabeth
born. >> i'm sorry. , he was the person. -- mcconaughey was the person. i have looked high and low for specifics about that. david wills and david mcconaughey seem to be republican. wills might have been a little more in support of fremont or others. their problem as one of the gettysburg committees that it was looking into had signed told the governor of pennsylvania, it was a peculiar realization between these men that was causing trouble. he did not say what they were and some people think that mice -- that -- there must be a romance involved. there have been suggestions involved. i have been looking at that and there is a interesting problem
but mcconaughey was nowhere near lincoln when lincoln came to gettysburg. wills kept him away from lincoln and he kept lincoln away from the evergreen cemetery. thank you very much. [applause] >> you are watching american history tv, 48 hours of programming on american history every weekend on c-span3. follow us on twitter at c-span history for information on our schedule and to keep up with the latest history news. communicators, the technology fair on capitol hill. members of congress will -- looking at the latest in drone technology and security features. innovationto see
happening, life-changing innovation whether it is health care, car navigation, health and safety, some of the other things. -- so many other things. >> watch the communicators, monday night at 8:00 eastern on c-span2. american history tv marks the 50th anniversary of the detroit riots with a special program from the detroit free press. 1967 whenck to july five days of rioting erected in the city, sparked by a police raid on a illegal bar and fueled by long simmering tensions over racism and segregation. here is a preview. >> you were a police officer in 1967. could you give your perspective on what happened 50 years ago? >> 50 years ago, i was in the heat of all the things going on. the weather was similar, it was extremely hot and humid, but we
had loads of people on the street who were looting, some were just spectators, but we had probably about 1500 police aficers and we probably had third of them were less than african-american. it was such an incredible time. some people were enjoying the spectacle of what was going on, others were looting. it was a difficult time for everyone because of the fact that we had assumed in detroit that this was not going to happen, that things were ok and eventually, i worked for the mayor and people assume that this was not going to happen. the police department was woefully unprepared to handle the situation. the police department assumed that everyone was happy, but
they had not looked at what had occurred that facilitated this sudden surge. we had horrible police community relations. a lot of people had been beaten up and i was one of those people in 1957 that was severely beaten up by the police. ,his was commonplace in detroit for the detroit police department and in fact, it would probably around that time that the naacp attempted to integrate the police department and the police department went on what was called a strike, in essence. we had all these things that were occurring, and a number of people in the 50's and early 60's who had been shot or killed by the police. all of these things festered and we had a great number of people who had moved up from the south, who wanted to get jobs in detroit because of the big three and they found that things were probably as bad here as they
were in the south, so they were really frustrated in terms of things that were going on. >> watch the entire program on the 1967 detroit riots at 8:00 a.m. and p.m. eastern, on monday. this is american history tv on c-span3. >> terumi rafferty-osaki is an adjunct professor at american university in washington. his areas of focus include 20th century u.s. history, he talks about the integration of baseball by african-americans, women, and asians. this class is one hour 45 minutes. ♪ take me out to the ballgame take me out to the crowd buy me some peanuts and crackerjacks i don't care if i ever get back 'cause it's roro